Research literature on performance and image-enhancing drug use in society (Peer-reviewed journal articles: blood-borne viruses)


journal covers

Peer-reviewed journal articles

Focusing on blood-borne viruses

Aitken, C., Delalande, C. & Stanton, K. (2002). Pumping iron, risking infection? Exposure to hepatitis C, hepatitis B and HIV among anabolic–androgenic steroid injectors in Victoria, Australia. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 65(3), 303-308.

Day, C., Topp, L., Iversen, J. & Maher, L. (2008). Blood-borne virus prevalence and risk among steroid injectors: Results from the Australian needle & syringe program survey. Drug and Alcohol Review, 27(5), 559-561.

Bates, G., Hope, V. & McVeigh, J. (2017). HIV among people using anabolic steroids in the United Kingdom: An overview. HIV Nursing, 17, 20-23.

Hope, V., Harris, R., McVeigh, J., Cullen, K., Smith, J., Parry, J., . . . Ncube, F. (2016). Risk of HIV and hepatitis B and C over time among men who inject image and performance enhancing drugs in England and Wales: Results from cross-sectional prevalence surveys, 1992–2013. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 73(3), 237-245.

Hope, V., McVeigh, J. Smith, J., Glass, R., Njoroge, J., Tanner, C ., . . . Desai, M. (2017). Low levels of hepatitis C diagnosis and testing uptake among people who inject image and performance enhancing drugs in England and Wales, 2012-15. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 179, 83-86.

Hope, V., McVeigh, J., Marongiu, A., Evans-Brown, M., Smith, J., Kimergård, A ., . . . Ncube, F. (2013). Prevalence of, and risk factors for, HIV, hepatitis B and C infections among men who inject image and performance enhancing drugs: A cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 3(9), [no page number].

Iversen, J., Hope, V. & McVeigh, J. (2016). Access to needle and syringe programs by people who inject image and performance enhancing drugs. International Journal of Drug Policy, 31, 199-200.

Ip, EJ., Yadao, MA., Shah, BM. & Lau, B. (2016). Infectious disease, injection practices, and risky sexual behavior among anabolic steroid users. AIDS Care, 28(3), 294-299.

Iversen, J., Topp, L., Wand, H. & Maher, L. (2013). Are people who inject performance and image-enhancing drugs an increasing population of needle and syringe program attendees? Drug and Alcohol Review, 32(2), 205-207.

Larance, B., Degenhardt, L., Copeland, J. & Dillon, P. (2008). Injecting risk behaviour and related harm among men who use performance and image-enhancing drugs. Drug and Alcohol Review, 27(6), 679-686.

Memedovic, S., Iversen, J., Geddes, L. & Maher, L. (2016). Australian needle syringe program survey national data report 2011-2015: Prevalence of HIV, HCV and injecting and sexual behaviour among NSP attendees. Kirby Institute, UNSW Australia: Sydney.

Rowe, R., Berger, I., Yaseen, B. & Copeland, J. (2017). Risk and blood‐borne virus testing among men who inject image and performance enhancing drugs, Sydney, Australia. Drug and Alcohol review, 36(5), 658-666.

Schwingel PA., Cotrim HP., dos Santos CR., Salles, BC., de Almeida, CE., Zoppi CC. (2012). Non-medical anabolic-androgenic steroid consumption and hepatitis B and C virus infection in regular strength training practitioners. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 6(22), 1598-1605.

Seear, K., Fraser, S., Moore, D. & Murphy, D. (2015). Understanding and responding to anabolic steroid injecting and hepatitis C risk in Australia: A research agenda. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 22(5), 449-455.

Body image



Policy/health/harm reduction


PIEDs markets


Motivations for use

Multiple drug use

PIEDs in sport