Research literature on performance and image-enhancing drug use in society (Peer-reviewed journal articles: harms)


journal covers

Peer-reviewed journal articles

Focusing on harms

Bahrke, MS., Yesalis, CE., Kopstein, AN. & Stephens, JA. (2000). Risk factors associated with anabolic-androgenic steroid use among adolescents. Sports Medicine, 29(6), 397-405.

Brennan, R., Van Hout, M. & Wells, J. (2013). Heuristics of human enhancement risk: A little chemical help? International Journal of Health Promotion & Education, 51(4), 212-227.

Dunn, M., Bartle, J. & McKay, F. (2016). Exploring judicial opinion on the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroid use and violent offending. Performance Enhancement and Health, 5(1), 31-33.

Evans-Brown, M. & McVeigh, J. (2009). Injecting human growth hormone as a performance-enhancing drug—perspectives from the United Kingdom. Journal of Substance Use, 14(5), 267-288.

Fudala, P., Weinrieb, R., Calarco, J., Kampman, K. & Boardman, C. (2003). An evaluation of anabolic-androgenic steroid abusers over a period of 1 Year: Seven case studies. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 2003, 15(2), 121-130.

Griffiths, S., Murray, S., Mitchison, D. & Mond, JM. (2016). Anabolic steroids: Lots of muscle in the short-term, potentially devastating health consequences in the long-term. Drug and Alcohol Review, 35(4), 375-376.

Hall, RC. & Chapman, M. (2005). Psychiatric complications of anabolic steroid abuse. Psychosomatics, 46(4), 285-290.

Joubert, HE. & Melluish, S. (2016). Considering anabolic androgenic steroid use in relation to non-substance related diagnostic categories with special emphasis on eating disorders: A systematic review. Journal of Substance Use, 21(2), 210-216.

Kanayama, G., Pope, HG., Cohane, G. & Hudson, JI. (2003). Risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid use among weightlifters: A case-control study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 71(1), 77-86.

Kanayama, G., Brower, K., Wood, R., Hudson, J. & Pope Jr, H. (2009). Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: An emerging disorder. Addiction, 104(12), 1966-1978.

Kanayama, G., Hudson, JI. & Pope, HG. (2010). Illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid use. Hormones and Behavior, 58(1), 111-121.

Kanayama, G., Kean, J., Hudson, J. & Pope, H. (2013). Cognitive deficits in long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 130(1), 208-214.

Kimergård, A. & McVeigh, J. (2014). Environments, risk and health harms: A qualitative investigation into the illicit use of anabolic steroids among people using harm reduction services in the UK. British Medical Journal Open, 4(6), e005275.

Kimergård, A. & McVeigh, J. (2014). Variability and dilemmas in harm reduction for anabolic steroid users in the UK: A multi-area interview study. Harm Reduction Journal, 11(1), 19.

Lundholm, L., Frisell, T., Lichtenstein, P. & Långström, N. (2015). Anabolic androgenic steroids and violent offending: Confounding by polysubstance abuse among 10 365 general population men. Addiction, 110(1), 100-108.

Maycock, B. & Howat, P. (2007). Social capital: Implications from an investigation of illegal anabolic steroid networks. Health Education Research, 22(6), 854-863.

Maycock, B. & Howat, P. (2005). The barriers to illegal anabolic steroid use. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 12(4), 317-325.

McVeigh, J. & Begley, E. (2016). Anabolic steroids in the UK: An increasing issue for public health. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 24(3), 278-285.

McVeigh, J., Kimergård, A., Bates, G., Hope, VD. & Ncube, F. (2016). Harm reduction interventions should encompass people who inject image and performance enhancing drugs. British Medical Journal, 353, i1889.

Monaghan, Lee. (2009). Commentary on Kanayama et al. (2009): The normalization of steroid use. Addiction, 104(12), 1979-1980.

Petróczi, A., Dodge, T., Backhouse, SH. & Adesanwo, C. (2014). Review of the literature on negative health risks based interventions to guide anabolic steroid misuse prevention. Performance Enhancement and Health, 3(1), 31-44.

Pope, H., Kanayama, G. & Hudson, J. (2012). Risk factors for illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid use in male weightlifters: A cross-sectional cohort study. Biological Psychiatry, 71(3), 254-261.

Probert, A., Palmer, F. & Leberman, S. (2007). The fine line: An insight into ‘risky’ practices of male and female competitive bodybuilders. Annals of Leisure Research, 10(3-4), 272-290.

Sagoe, D., Mentzoni, R., Hanss, D. & Pallesen, S. (2016). Aggression is associated with increased anabolic-androgenic steroid use contemplation among adolescents. Substance Use and Misuse, 51(11), 1462-1469.

Santos, GH. & Coomber, R. (2017). The risk environment of anabolic-androgenic steroid users in the UK: Examining motivations, practices and accounts of use. International Journal of Drug Policy, 40, 35-43.

Seear, K., Murphy, D., Fraser, S. & Moore, D. (2015). Understanding and responding to the rise of steroid injecting in Australia: Recommendations from a national consultation, Curtin University, National Drug Research Institute (NDRI): Perth.

Thiblin, I., Garmo, H., Garle, M., Holmberg, L., Byberg, L., Michaëlsson, K. & Gedeborg, Rolf. (2015). Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk: A national population-based cohort study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 152, 87-92.

van de Ven, K. & Koenraadt, R. (2017). Exploring the relationship between online buyers and sellers of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs): Quality issues, trust and self-regulation. International Journal of Drug Policy, 50, 48-55.

van de Ven, K. & Mulrooney, K. (2017). Social suppliers: Exploring the cultural contours of the performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) market among bodybuilders in the Netherlands and Belgium. International Journal of Drug Policy, 40, 6-15.

Body image


Policy/health/harm reduction

Blood-borne viruses


PIEDs markets


Motivations for use

Multiple drug use

PIEDs in sport