Research literature on performance and image-enhancing drug use in society (Peer-reviewed journal articles: masculinity/gender)


journal covers

Peer-reviewed journal articles

Focusing on masculinity/gender

Andreasson, J. (2015). Reconceptualising the gender of fitness doping: Performing and negotiating masculinity through drug-use practices. Social Sciences, 4(3), 546.

Andreasson, J. & Johansson, T. (2016). Gender, fitness doping and the genetic max: The ambivalent construction of muscular masculinities in an online community. Social Sciences, 5(1), 1-13.

Atkinson, M. (2007). Playing with fire: Masculinity, health, and sports supplements. Sociology of Sport Journal, 24(2), 165-186.

Bucher, J. (2012). Soldiering with substance: Substance and steroid use among military personnel. Journal of Drug Education (42)3, 267-292.

Keane, H. (2005). Diagnosing the male steroid user: Drug use, body image and disordered masculinity. Health, 9(2), 189-208.

Nangia, AK. (2014). Anabolic steroid abuse: A paradox of manliness. Fertility and Sterility, 101(5), 1247.

Ravn, S. & Coffey, J. (2016). ‘Steroids, it’s so much an identity thing!’ Perceptions of steroid use, risk and masculine body image. Journal of Youth Studies, 19(1), 87-102.

Underwood, M. (2017). Exploring the social lives of image and performance enhancing drugs: An online ethnography of the Zyzz fandom of recreational bodybuilders. International Journal of Drug Policy, 39, 78-85.

Underwood, M. & Olson, R. (2018). ‘Manly tears exploded from my eyes, let’s feel together brahs’: Emotion and masculinity within an online body building community. Journal of Sociology. Advance online publication. 1440783318766610.

Vangrunderbeek, H. & Tolleneer, J. (2011). Student attitudes towards doping in sport: Shifting from repression to tolerance? International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 46(3), 346-357.

Vassallo, MW. & Olrich, TW. (2010). Confidence by injection: Male users of anabolic steroids speak of increases in perceived confidence through anabolic steroid use. International Journal Sport Exercise Psychology, 8(1), 70-80.

Body image



Policy/health/harm reduction

Blood-borne viruses


PIEDs markets

Motivations for use

Multiple drug use

PIEDs in sport