Research literature on performance and image-enhancing drug use in society (Peer-reviewed journal articles: PIEDs markets)


journal covers

Peer-reviewed journal articles

Focusing on PIEDs markets

Andreasson, J. & Johansson, T. (2016). Online doping. The new self-help culture of ethnopharmacology. Sport in Society, 19(7), 957-972.

Antonopoulos, GA. & Hall, A. (2016). ‘Gain with no pain’: Anabolic-androgenic steroids trafficking in the UK. European Journal of Criminology, 13(6), 696-713.

Brennan, R., Wells, JS. & Van Hout, MC. (2018). ‘Raw juicing’– an online study of the home manufacture of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) for injection in contemporary performance and image enhancement (PIED) culture. Performance Enhancement and Health, 6(1), 21-27.

Coomber, R., Pavlidis, A., Hanley Santos, G., Wilde, M., Schmidt, W. & Redshaw, C. (2014). The supply of steroids and other performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs) in one English city: Fakes, counterfeits, supplier trust, common beliefs and access. Performance Enhancement and Health, 3(3-4), 135-144.

Fincoeur, B., van de Ven, K. & Mulrooney, KD. (2015). The symbiotic evolution of anti-doping and supply chains of doping substances: How criminal networks may benefit from anti-doping policy. Trends in Organized Crime, 18(3), 229-250.

Koenraadt, R. & van de Ven, K. (2018). The Internet and lifestyle drugs: An analysis of demographic characteristics, methods, and motives of online purchasers of illicit lifestyle drugs in the Netherlands. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 25(4), 345-355.

Lutfi, AM. (2016). A quick analysis in relation to the electronic commerce of performance-and image-enhancing drugs based on the infrastructure of the World Wide Web. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences, Jul-Aug, 7(4), 1.

Sagoe, D., Severinsen, IG., Saasen, SE., Gracian, TI., Olaniyan, OS. & Pallesen, S. (2017). Perceived source of anabolic-androgenic steroids and the construal of users’ personality. Journal of Substance Use, 22(6), 587-591.

van de Ven, K. & Koenraadt, R. (2017). Exploring the relationship between online buyers and sellers of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs): Quality issues, trust and self-regulation. International Journal of Drug Policy, 50, 48-55.

Body image



Policy/health/harm reduction

Blood-borne viruses



Motivations for use

Multiple drug use

PIEDs in sport