Research literature on performance and image-enhancing drug use in society (Peer-reviewed journal articles: epidemiology)


journal covers

Peer-reviewed journal articles

Focusing on the epidemiology of PIED use

Brennan, R., Wells, JS. & Van Hout, MC. (2017). The injecting use of image and performance‐enhancing drugs (IPED) in the general population: A systematic review. Health and Social Care in the Community, 25(5), 1459-1531.

Copeland, J., Peters, R. & Dillon, P. (2000). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use disorders among a sample of Australian competitive and recreational users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 60(1), 91-96.

Darkes, J., Collins, R., Cohen, J. & Gwartney, D. (2007). A league of their own: Demographics, motivations and patterns of use of 1,955 male adult non-medical anabolic steroid users in the United States. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 4(1), 12.

Denham, BE. (2012). Anabolic-androgenic steroids and adolescents: Recent developments. Journal of Addictions Nursing, 23(3), 167-171.

Dunn, M., Mazanov, J. & Sitharthan, G. (2009). Predicting future anabolic-androgenic steroid use intentions with current substance use: Findings from an Internet-based survey. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 19(3), 222-227.

Edward, C. & Dawn, C. (2007). Prevalence of use of performance-enhancing substances among United States adolescents. Paediatric Clinics of North America, 54, 663-675.

Griffiths, S., Henshaw, R., McKay, FH. & Dunn, M. (2017). Post-cycle therapy for performance and image enhancing drug users: A qualitative investigation. Performance Enhancement and Health, 5(3), 103-107.

Hildebrandt, T., Langenbucher, JW., Carr, SJ. & Sanjuan, P. (2007). Modeling population heterogeneity in appearance- and performance-enhancing drug (APED) use: Applications of mixture modeling in 400 regular APED users. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(4), 717-733.

Hope, V., McVeigh, J., Marongiu, A., Evans-Brown, M., Smith, J., Kimergård, A., . . . Ncube, F. (2013). Prevalence of, and risk factors for, HIV, hepatitis B and C infections among men who inject image and performance enhancing drugs: A cross-sectional study. British Medical Journal Open, 3(9), [no page number].

Ip, E., Barnett, M., Tenerowicz, M. & Perry, P. (2011). The Anabolic 500 survey: Characteristics of male users versus nonusers of anabolic‐androgenic steroids for strength training. Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, 31(8), 757-766.

Jacka, B., Peacock, A., Degenhardt, L., Bruno, R., Clare, P., Kemp, R., . . . Larance, B. (2017). Trends in PIEDs use among male clients of needle-syringe programs in Queensland, Australia: 2007–2015. International Journal of Drug Policy, 46, 74-78.

Jampel, JD., Murray, SB., Griffiths, S. & Blashill, AJ. (2016). Self-perceived weight and anabolic steroid misuse among US adolescent boys. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(4), 397-402.

Kanayama, G. & Pope, HG. (2018). History and epidemiology of anabolic androgens in athletes and non-athletes. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 464, 4-13.

Klötz, F., Petersson, A., Hoffman, O. & Thiblin, I. (2010). The significance of anabolic androgenic steroids in a Swedish prison population. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 51, 312-318.

Molero, Y., Bakshi, A. & Gripenberg, J. (2017). Illicit drug use among gym-goers: A cross-sectional study of gym-goers in Sweden. Sports Medicine – Open, 3(1), 31.

Mooney, R., Simonato, P., Ruparelia, R., Roman‐Urrestarazu, A., Martinotti, G. & Corazza, O. (2017). The use of supplements and performance and image enhancing drugs in fitness settings: A exploratory cross‐sectional investigation in the United Kingdom. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 32(3), e2619.

Pope, Jr HG., Kanayama, G., Athey, A., Ryan, E., Hudson, JI. & Baggish, A. (2014). The lifetime prevalence of anabolic‐androgenic steroid use and dependence in Americans: Current best estimates. The American Journal on Addictions, 23(4), 371-377.

Sagoe, D., Molde, H., Andreassen, CS., Torsheim, T. & Pallesen, S. (2014). The global epidemiology of anabolic-androgenic steroid use: A meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Annals of Epidemiology, 24(5), 383-398.

Sagoe, D. & Pallesen, S. (2018). Androgen abuse epidemiology. Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes and Obesity, 25(3), 185-194.

Sluggett, B. (2011). Sport’s doping game: Surveillance in the biotech age. Sociology of Sport Journal, 28(4), 387-403.

Stensballe, A., McVeigh, J., Breindahl, T. & Kimergård, A. (2015). Synthetic growth hormone releasers detected in seized drugs: New trends in the use of drugs for performance enhancement. Addiction, 110(2), 368-369.

Tay Wee Teck, J. & McCann, M. (2018). Tracking internet interest in anabolic-androgenic steroids using Google Trends. International Journal of Drug Policy, 51, 52-55.

Thiblin, I. & Petersson, A. (2005). Pharmacoepidemiology of anabolic androgenic steroids: A review. Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology, 19(1), 27-44.

Van Hout, M. & Kean, J. (2015). An exploratory study of image and performance enhancement drug use in a male British South Asian community. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26(9), 860-867.

Body image


Policy/health/harm reduction

Blood-borne viruses


PIEDs markets


Motivations for use

Multiple drug use

PIEDs in sport