Research literature on performance and image-enhancing drug use in society (Peer-reviewed journal articles: multiple drug use)


journal covers

Peer-reviewed journal articles

Focusing on multiple drug use

Chatwin, C., Measham, F., O’Brien, K. & Sumnall, H. (2017). New drugs, new directions? Research priorities for new psychoactive substances and human enhancement drugs. International Journal of Drug Policy, 40, 1-5.

Cornford, CS., Kean, J. & Nash, A. (2014). Anabolic-androgenic steroids and heroin use: A qualitative study exploring the connection. International Journal of Drug Policy, 25(5), 928-930.

Ip, EJ., Yadao, MA., Shah, BM., Doroudgar, S., Perry, P., Tenerowicz, MJ., . . . Pope Jr, HG. (2017). Polypharmacy, infectious diseases, sexual behavior, and psychophysical health among anabolic steroid-using homosexual and heterosexual gym patrons in San Francisco’s Castro District. Substance Use and Misuse, 52(7), 959-968.

Lundholm, L., Frisell, T., Lichtenstein, P. & Långström, N. (2015). Anabolic androgenic steroids and violent offending: Confounding by polysubstance abuse among 10 365 general population men. Addiction, 110(1), 100-108.

Sagoe, D., McVeigh, J., Bjørnebekk, A., Essilfie, MS., Andreassen, CS. & Pallesen, S. (2015). Polypharmacy among anabolic-androgenic steroid users: A descriptive metasynthesis. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy, 10(1), 12.

Siokou, C., Moore, D. & Lee, H. (2010). ‘Muzzas’ and ‘old skool ravers’: Ethnicity, drugs and the changing face of Melbourne’s dance party/club scene. Health Sociology Review, 19(2), 192-204.

Skårberg, K., Nyberg, F. & Engström, I. (2008). The development of multiple drug use among anabolic-androgenic steroid users: Six subjective case reports. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy3(1), 24.

Skarberg, K., Nyberg, F. & Engstrom, I. (2009). Multisubstance use as a feature of addiction to anabolic-androgenic steroids. European Addiction Research, 15(2), 99-106.

Body image



Policy/health/harm reduction

Blood-borne viruses


PIEDs markets


Motivations for use

PIEDs in sport