Research literature on performance and image-enhancing drug use in society (Peer-reviewed journal articles: body image)


journal covers

Peer-reviewed journal articles

Focusing on body image

Bardick, A., Bernes, K. & Nixon, G. (2006). In pursuit of physical perfection: Weight lifting and steroid use in men. Journal of Excellence, 11, 135-145.

Bardick, A., Nixon, G. & Bernes, K. (2008). More than meets the eye: Weight lifting and steroid use in men. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 8(2), 208-227.

Brewster, ME., Sandil, R., DeBlaere, C., Breslow, A. & Eklund, A. (2017). ‘Do you even lift, bro?’ Objectification, minority stress, and body image concerns for sexual minority men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 18(2), 87-98.

Filiault, SM. & Drummond, MJ. (2010). ‘Muscular, but not ‘roided out’: Gay male athletes and performance-enhancing substances. International Journal of Men’s Health, 9(1), 62.

Griffiths, S., Murray, SB., Dunn, M. & Blashill, AJ. (2017). Anabolic steroid use among gay and bisexual men living in Australia and New Zealand: Associations with demographics, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder psychopathology, and quality of life. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 181, 170-176.

Griffiths, S., Jacka, B., Degenhardt, L., Murray, SB. & Larance, B. (2018). Physical appearance concerns are uniquely associated with the severity of steroid dependence and depression in anabolic-androgenic steroid users. Drug and Alcohol Review, 37(5), 664-670.

Griffiths, S., Murray, S., Krug, I. & McLean, S. (2018). The contribution of social media to body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, and anabolic steroid use among sexual minority men. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 21(3), 149-156.

Nøkleby, H. & Skårderud, F. (2013). Body practices among male drug abusers. Meanings of workout and use of doping agents in a drug treatment setting. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 11(4), 490-502.

Kanayama, G., Barry, S., Hudson, J. & Pope, H. (2006). Body image and attitudes toward male roles in anabolic-androgenic steroid users. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(4), 697-703.

Melki, JP., Hitti, EA., Oghia, MJ. & Mufarrij, AA. (2014). Media exposure, mediated social comparison to idealized images of muscularity, and anabolic steroid use. Health Communication, 30(5), 1-12.

Murray, SB., Griffiths, S., Mond, JM., Kean, J. & Blashill, AJ. (2016). Anabolic steroid use and body image psychopathology in men: Delineating between appearance- versus performance-driven motivations. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 165, 198-202.

Pedersen, IK. (2010). Doping and the perfect body expert: Social and cultural indicators of performance-enhancing drug use in Danish gyms. Sport in Society, 13(3), 503-516.

Petrocelli, M., Oberweis, T. & Petrocelli, J. (2008). Getting huge, getting ripped: A qualitative exploration of recreational steroid use. Journal of Drug Issues, 38(4), 1187-1205.

Piacentino, D., Kotzalidis, GD., Longo, L., Pavan, A., Stivali, L., Stivali, G., . . . Fineschi, V. (2017). Body image and eating disorders are common among professional and amateur athletes using performance and image enhancing drugs: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 49(5), 373-384.

Pope, H., Khalsa, J. & Bhasin, S. (2017). Body image disorders and abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids among men. Journal of American Medical Association, 317(1), 23-24.

Smith, A. & Stewart, B. (2012). Body and virtual ethnopharmacology in an online bodybuilding community. Performance Enhancement and Health, 1(1), 35-38.

Thompson, JK. & Ordaz, DL. (2016). Chasing the ideal: The role of body image in anabolic steroid misuse. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(4), 379.

Zarghami, A. & Nazari, P. (2018). Muscle dysmorphia and the great dilemma for anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse. Psychiatry Research, 263, 287.



Policy/health/harm reduction

Blood-borne viruses


PIEDs markets


Motivations for use

Multiple drug use

PIEDs in sport